40ID Urban Warfare
- What We Learned Creating the Army’s First Urban Planners Course
- Urban Warfare Project Case Study #4: The Battle for Suez City – by John Spencer and Jayson Geroux
- 10-16 July 2022: 40th Division Urban Operations Planner Course at JFTB, Los Alamitos, CA. Register at 40IDfirstname.lastname@example.org
This page is an effort by 40th ID Urban Warfare Center to offer one-stop shopping for urban warfare history, scholarship, resources, and points of contact for the Urban Operations Community of Interest (COI), including military, academic, and allied/international organizations. This is a living webpage, updated often to keep it relevant, and the 40th Urban Team welcomes your feedback to improve it!
The 40th ID Urban Warfare Team recommends that you read these articles and chapters understand the larger strategic context of why urban fight is unavoidable and why armies need to train specifically for the difficult Dense Urban Environment (DUE).
- Have cities become the main battlegrounds in armed conflicts? – by Emma Elfversson & Kristine Höglund, October 2021
- The City Is Neutral: On Urban Warfare in the 21st Century – David Betz, October 2019
- The City Is Not Neutral: Why Urban Warfare Is So Hard – John Spencer, March 2020
- Urban Warfare, Then and Now – Bing West, June 2017
- The Eight Rules of Urban Warfare and Why We Must Work to Change Them – Modern War Institute – John Spencer, January 2021
- The chapters on Aachen, Manilla, and Hue in Block By Block: The Challenges Of Urban Operations – Combat Studies Institute, 2000
- Chapter 18, Large-Scale Combat Operations in Urban Terrain, from “Large-Scale Combat Operations, The Division Fight” – US Army Command and General Staff College Press, 2019
- Chapter 2 of Urban Warfare in the Twenty-First Century by Anthony King – “as armies contract, urban warfare becomes more prevalent.”
For journeyman students of Urban Warfare, here is some expanded scholarship, included for reference
- (12 article Series) Unpacking the Urban Fight: Introducing the Twelve Challenges – Grounded Curiosity – Dr Charles Knight
- Breaking the Mold: Tanks in the Cities – by Kendall D. Gott, Published: 2006. 146 Pages
- An Attack on Duffer’s Downtown – a twist on “duffer’s drift” for Urban, written in 2000.
- Reimagining the Character of Urban Operations for the U.S. Army (Rand 2017)
- Street Smarts – Urban IPB
- How to Hold or Take a Big City — Seven Lines of Effort – Small Wars Journal
- (Book) Urban Warfare in the Twenty-First Century – Anthony King. 288 pages
- (Book) Storming the City: U.S. Military Performance in Urban Warfare from World War II to Vietnam – Alec Wahlman. 400 pages
- (Book) Block By Block: The Challenges Of Urban Operations – Published by Combat Studies Institute in 2000. 405 pages
Stalingrad 1942-43 – ‘The fighting that took place inside the city was among the most intense of all the urban battles that took place during the Second World War. It was the first time that mass industrial armies, fully equipped with modern weaponry of machine guns, tanks, artillery and airpower, had been involved in a sustained battle against each other inside a city. Not only was it one of the most savage engagements of the war, but it is plausibly held as the turning point of the conflict in Europe.’ -Anthony King
- Basic: Case Study: Battle of Stalingrad – Modern War Institute – John Spencer and Jayson Geroux, June 2021
- Intermediate: Army University Press Stalingrad Film Series
Ortona in 1943 – The battle was known as the “Italian Stalingrad,” for the brutality of its close-quarters combat, which was only worsened by the chaotic rubble of the town and the many booby traps used by both sides.
- Basic: Italian Stalingrad: The Battle Of Ortona – John Spencer, May 2021
- Advanced: The Urban Battle Of Ortona by Jayson Geroux
Aachen in 1944 – Aachen was one of the largest urban battles fought by U.S. forces in World War II, and the first city on German soil to be captured by the Allies. Although most of Aachen’s civilian population was evacuated before the battle began, much of the city was destroyed and both sides suffered heavy losses.
- Intermediate: “Knock ’em All Down”: The Reduction of Aachen, by Christopher R. Gabel in Block By Block: The Challenges Of Urban Operations – Combat Studies Institute, 2000
Manila in 1945 – A major, month-long battle was the worst urban fighting in the Pacific theater in World War II. Multiple American divisions fought to capture the capital city of the Philippines from Japanese forces occupying it. The battle resulted in the death of over 100,000 civilians and the complete devastation of the city. It’s notable for American forces securing civilian infrastructure (e.g. the city’s water supply), which paid dividends after the battle.
- Basic: Watch Battle of Manila Videos, including Army University Press film (2021) Liberation of Manila (WWII Documentary)
Hue in 1968 – Part of the Tet Offensive, Hue was an epic, nearly monthlong battle took place between large units of US Forces (Army & Marines) and multiple regiments of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army soldiers. It was a battle that brought about major shifts in the war and in the American public’s attitude toward it.
- Basic: Urban Warfare Project Case Study #3: Battle of Hue
- Intermediate: Death in the Imperial City – Hue 1968
- Advanced: Book: Hue 1968: A Turning Point of the American War in Vietnam
Second Battle for Fallujah – 2004 – Fallujah is an example of combined arms units successfully penetrating deep into the city to dislocate the enemy.
- Basic: Read The Second Battle of Fallujah the Future of Urban Warfare and listen to The Spear Podcast on Second Fallujah and Urban Warfare Project Podcast with LTG Rainey
- Intermediate: Marines in Fallujah – Study Guide and listen to a podcast on Civil Affairs and the Second Battle of Fallujah
Mosul in 2016-17 – This was a corps-sized formation conducting multi-domain operations as a coalition force in dense urban environment (DUE), a city the size of Pittsburg (50 sq mi) with a pre-conflict population equal to Philadelphia (1.5 million). “Mosul … hosted the most violent urban combat the world has seen since World War II” – COL Pat Work
- Basic: Five Operational Lessons from the Battle for Mosul and listen to COL Pat Work on MWI podcast episode 45
- Intermediate: The Mosul Study Group and the Lessons of the Battle of Mosul (2020)
Shusha in 2020 – The Battle of Shusha was the dramatic culmination of the 2020 2nd Karabakh War between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Shusha sits on top of key terrain and was a strategic objective for the campaign; its capture signaled the end of the conflict.
Joint Urban Doctrine
US Army / Marine Corps Urban Doctrine
- ATP 3-06 Urban Operations
- ATTP 3-06.11 Combined Arms Operations in Urban Terrain (CAC login required)
- TRADOC Pamphlet 525-92-1, The Changing Character of Warfare: The Urban Operational Environment
- TC 90-1, Training for Urban Operations
- TC 90-5 Training for Reconnaissance Troop and Below in Urban Operations
- TC 2-91.4, Intelligence Support to Urban Operations (Inactive)
- ATP 3-06.1 Aviation in Urban Operations, 27 Apr 2016
US Army Subterranean (SbT) Doctrine
40th ID Urban Warfare Center Contacts
Urban Warfare Community Points of Contact Roster
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